4 Venous vascular disease in the legs

What is a vein and its function?

Veinsare blood vessels in humans, that carry blood towards the heart. Most veins are equipped with one-way valves, to prevent blood flowing in the reverse direction.

1. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT)

Deep vein thrombosis (DVT)

It occurs when a blood clot (thrombus) forms in one or more of the deep veins in the body, usually in the legs. Deep vein thrombosis can cause leg pain or swelling. Sometimes there are no noticeable symptoms.


Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) symptoms can include:

• Leg swelling
• Leg pain, cramping or soreness that often starts in the calf
• Change in skin color on the leg — such as red or purple, depending on the color of your skin
• A feeling of warmth on the affected leg

You can get DVT if you have certain medical conditions that affect how the blood clots. A blood clot in the legs can also develop if you don’t move for a long time. For example, you might not move a lot when traveling a long distance or when you’re on bed rest due to surgery, an illness or an accident.


2. Varicose Veins

Varicose Veins

Varicose veins are twisted, enlarged veins. Varicose veins most commonly affect the veins in the legs. That’s because standing and walking increase the pressure in the veins of the lower body.

For many people, varicose veins and spider veins — a common, mild variation of varicose veins — are simply a cosmetic concern. For other people, varicose veins can cause aching pain and discomfort. Sometimes varicose veins lead to more-serious problems.

Treatment might involve self-care measures or procedures done by a health care provider to close or remove veins.

Signs of varicose veins include:

• An achy or heavy feeling in the legs
• Burning, throbbing, muscle cramping and swelling in the lower legs
• Worsened pain after sitting or standing for a long time
• Itching around one or more of the veins


3. Spider veins


They are similar to varicose veins, but they’re smaller. Spider veins are found closer to the skin’s surface and are often red or blue.

Spider veins occur on the legs but can also be found on the face. They vary in size and often look like a spider’s web.

Signs of spider veins include:

• Dull and vague pain
• Fatigue and heaviness in the legs
• Tingling sensation around the veins
• Itching around the veins
• In some cases skin ulcers


4. Venous Ulcers

Venous Ulcers

Venous ulcers most often form around the ankles.

Venous ulcers typically occur because of damage to the valves inside the leg veins. These valves control the blood pressure inside the veins. They allow it to drop when you walk. If the blood pressure inside your leg veins doesn’t fall as you’re walking, the condition is called sustained venous hypertension. That increase in blood pressure causes ulcers to form on your ankles.

Signs of venous Ulcers include:

• Shallow sore with a red base, sometimes covered by yellow tissue
• Unevenly shaped borders
• Surrounding skin may be shiny, tight, warm or hot, and discolored
• Leg pain
• If the sore becomes infected, it may have a bad odor and pus may drain from the wound

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